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Sunday, October 25, 2020
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Heinrich Rudolph Hertz is known as Heinrich Hertz. He was born on 22 February 1857 –  and died on 1 January 1894. Hertz was a German physicist who finally proved the existence of the electromagnetic wave predicted by James Clark Maxwell’s equation of electric magnetism. The frequency unit, per the second cycle, named “Hertz” in his honor. His biography, education, work experience contribution have exposed here.

Heinrich hertz Biography

Heinrich Rudolph Hertz was born in 1857 in a prosperous and cultured Hanseatic family in Hamburg. The sovereign state of the then German Confederation. His father was Gustav Ferdinand Hertz. His mother is Anna Elizabeth Feffkorn. Hertz showed proficiency in science while studying at Des Johannes at the Gelhritensule in Hamburg As well as learning languages, Arabic and Sanskrit.

Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Hertz

He was a student of science and engineering in the German cities of Dresden. Kirchoff and Hermann studied under von Helmholtz. Hertz earned a PhD from the University of Berlin in 1880. And for the next three years was in doctoral studies under Helmholtz and served as his assistant.
Hertz took a position as a lecturer in theoretical physics at Kiel University In 1883. In 1885, Hertz became a full professor at Karlsruhe University. Hertz married Elisabeth Dole In 1886, daughter of Max Doll, a lecturer in geometry at Karlsruhe.
They had two daughters: Johanna, born October 20, 1887, and in Mathilde, born January 14, 1891, who became a noted biologist. During this time Hertz conducted his epoch-making research on electromagnetic waves. Hertz took up the position of professor and director of forest physics on April 7, 1946, until he died.
At this time he published posthumously in 1894. He worked on theoretical mechanics with his work published in the book My Principian Der Mechanic, in the Neuheim Jussmannhange Darjestelt (Principles of Multiculturalism).

Electromagnetic waves

In 1864, James Clark, a physicist of Scottish mathematics, proposed a comprehensive theory of Maxwell electromagnetism, now called Maxwell’s equation. Maxwell’s theory predicts that combined electric and magnetic fields can travel through space as “electronic magnetic waves”. Maxwell suggested that light contains magnetic waves at short wavelengths, but no one has been able to prove it or create or detect electromagnetic waves of other wavelengths.
Helmholtz also suggested the “Berlin Prize” problem that year at the Prussian Academy of Sciences, as predicted by Maxwell’s theory. Anyone can experimentally prove the electromagnetic effect of polarization and degradation of insulators. Helmholtz convinced that Hertz was the most likely candidate.
Seeing no way to experimentally create a device to test it. Hertz thought it was very difficult, and instead worked with electromagnetic induction. Hertz Kiehl’s analysis of Maxwell’s equations in his time showed that they had more validity than the then “distance action” theories.
He was conducting a series of experiments with Reese’s spiral in the autumn of 1886. After Hertz’s professorship at Karlsruhe, when he noticed that discharging a jar of Leyden in one of these coils would create a spark in the other coil. With an idea of ​​how to make an apparatus, Hertz’s 1879 “Berlin Rewards” problem had a way of proceeding to prove Maxwell’s theory (though the actual prize ended unknowingly in 1882).
He used a Ruhmcorff coil driven spark gap and a one-meter wire pair as radiators. The fields of competence were present at the edge to adjust the circuit resonance. One of its receiver components was a simple half-wave bipedal antenna with a micrometer spark gap. This experiment now known as the very high-frequency range radio wave that produced and adopted.

Cathode ray

Hertz began the experiment in 1892 and proved that cathode rays could penetrate very thin metallic foils (such as aluminum). Philip Lenard, Heinrich Hertz’s student, did more research on this “ray effect.” He developed a version of the cathode tube and studied the infiltration by X-rays of various materials. Before he discovered and announced Rantzen he posted a diffraction theory.
It formed on the basis of the electromagnetic theory of light (Weidman’s Annalen, Vol. XLVII). However, he did not work with the actual X-ray.

Photoelectric effects

In 18787, he made observations on the production and enrichment of photoelectric effects and electromagnetic (EM) waves, published in the journal Annalen der Physique. His receiver had a coil with a spark gap through which a spark could be seen after EM wave detection. To keep the spark even better, he placed the apparatus in a solid box. He observed that the maximum spark length reduced while in the box.
The source and receiver of EM waves is a glass panel placed between the UV absorbers that helps the electrons cross the gap. When removed, the spark length increases. When he substituted quartz for the glass he noticed no reduction in spark length, because quartz does not absorb UV radiation. Hertz ended his month-long investigation and reported the results. He did not continue to investigate this effect further, nor did he make any attempt to explain how the observation event was brought about.

Communication Mechanics

In 1886-1889, Hertz published two articles about gaining recognition in the field of communication mechanics, which later proved to be an important basis for field theory. Joseph Valentin Bausinacek published some critically important observations on Hertz’s work, yet established this work to be of utmost importance in communication mechanics.
His work essentially summarizes how the two asymmetric substances kept in contact would behave under loading, he achieved results based on the classical theory of elasticity and continuum mechanics.
One of the most significant failures of his theory was the neglect of any nature of loyalty between the two solids, which proved to be important as the solid material began to capture high elasticity. With no experimental method of testing it, it was natural to neglect the adhesive in that era.
He again used Newton’s ring structure to validate his theory by experimenting to calculate the displacement within the sphere’s lens. By K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall et al. De Roberts (JKR) used this theory as the basis when calculating the theoretical displacement depth or indentation depth in the presence of solidarity.
Similar to this theory, although using different hypotheses, b. V. Derzaguin, VA. M. M ।ller and Y.P. Toparov published another theory in 1977, which became known as the DMT theory of the research community, which also retrieved Hertz’s formulas under the assumption of zero adherence.
This DMT theory proved to be premature and required several modifications before it could be recognized as a material communication theory other than JKR theory.
Both the DMT and the JKR theory form the basis of the communication mechanics on which all the transverse contact models used in nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy used to predict the material parameters.

Meteorology

Hertz has always had a keen interest in meteorology, probably derived from his communication with Wilhelm von Bezald (who was his professor at a laboratory course in the Munich Polytechnic in the summer of 1878).
As an assistant to Helmholtz in Berlin, he contributed to a number of minor articles in this field, including studies on the evaporation of liquids, new types of hydrometers, and graphical means of determining the characteristics of moist air when subjected to adiabatic changes.

Nazi persecution

Heinrich Herz had been a Lutheran all his life and would not consider himself a Jew. His father’s family, all converted to Lutheranism when his father was 1834 at an early age (seven years old). Nevertheless, when the Nazi regime took power decades after Hertz’s death, his image removed from their prestigious location in the City Hall (Rathouse) in Hamburg due to partial Jewish ethnicity.

Inheritance and honor

Heinrich Hertz’s nephew Gustav Ludwig Hertz was a Nobel Prize winner and Gustav’s son, Karl Helmut Hertz invented medical ultrasonography. His daughter, Mathilde Carman Hertz, was a renowned biologist and comparative psychologist. Hertz’s granddaughter Herman Gerhard Hertz who is a professor at the University of Karlsruhe. The promoter of NMR-spectroscopy and in 1995 published Hertz’s laboratory notes.
The SI unit Hertz (Herz) established in 1930 by the International Electro-Technical Commission in its honor for frequency.  Revealing the numbers that repeated every second.
It adopted by the CGPM (Conference Generale des Poids at Messrs.) In 1960 and officially replaces the former name “Seconds per Second” (CPS). In 1928 the Henrich-Hertz Institute for Oscillation Research established in Berlin.
Today known as the Fraunhofer Institute of Telecommunications, Heinrich Hertz Institute. HIA In 1969 (East Germany), a Heinrich Hertz commemorative medal defeated. The IEEE Heinrich Hertz Medal, established in 1987. That is “a theorem that obtained annually in Hertzian waves for an experimental or theoretical nature that presented to an individual”.
In 1980, a high school established in Italy around the CNCT Est in Rome called “Instituto Technico Industrial State Heinrich Hertz”. He named after a hole in the moon just behind the eastern limb.
The Hertz Market of Radio Electronics Products named after him in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The Heinrich-Hertz-Tarm radio telecommunications tower in Hamburg named after the city’s famous son. Hertz honored by Japan in the Order of the Sacred Treasure. Where there are multiple levels of honor for prominent people, including scientists. Heinrich has honored several countries in the world with their postal issues.

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